Cancer

Cancer is more of a mutation to the body. Most cancers relate to patients’ DNA structures. And unlike external invasion, cancer is self-procured. Diseases can be divided into two main categories, external pathogens or auto-diseases. The pathology of cancer is the unlimited and uncontrollable cell division of a certain type of cells. And cancers occur usually in late stage of a human’s life. Old people have a higher chance of getting cancer than young people. However, young people can also get cancers due to DNA mutations. And the fact that globally, the cancer rate is increasing, has to do with the modern lifestyles; the amount of radiations we are exposed to; and more and more DNA diversity. The existence of incurable diseases is regarded as deterrents towards unhealthy lifestyle and excessive indulgence. Through years, we have utilized technologies to prolong our life-span, increasing the survivability of human race. With almost a surplus of human population on this planet, humans are still striving to beat these incurable diseases. Cancer seems to be a much radical stopping sign than what it was 100 years ago, when people died due to numerous rather natural causes–war, famine, insanitary conditions and the medical technology was definitely not as advanced as today’s. People generally died at a young age. If entered a war, one could easily reduce his life-span to around 30 years. This progress of prolonging human life has definitely met its rival–cancer, and much commoner than ever before. It brings out the ultimate question: Do we have a need to cure cancer? To be frank, even if you think medical technology is as advanced as possible today, we still have quite a number of incurable diseases. Cancer being one of them, also one of the major ones. If we conquered cancer, there is really nothing stopping humans from aging and reproducing. Maybe disease is not a natural way of dying, since human illness is never a normality. You get into the hospital to get fixed, because you are out of bounds for a while. Having cancer is a suffering. And if we’d use a rather smoother way of dying, the one that you don’t suffer, I guess people may be more happier than die from suffering diseases. We are making medical advances in order to end sufferings, even at the thought of meeting more of it in the coming days.

Individuality and Impression, How We Remember People

We remember people by multiple signs and signals.

To know someone, it is not only from the person’s apperance, but also many other elements that relate to this very individual. This is what we called, individuality.

Though most of the time someone remembers a person by his/her face, the overall appearance.

However, when you pick up the phone, the voice from the other side let you know instantly who this person is if the caller is one of your friends.

If you close your eyes and not hear anything, you can still who is your mom and your dad by the touch of them.

To be frank, you will know your girlfriend instantly without even touching, seeing or hearing. You can know this person simply by standing beside her.

I believe, there are biological signals we recall when we contact with someone that makes an impression, which makes you memorize the person. And also physical signs that draw an overall picture of somebody.

I can’t remember what was the last time I visited a restaurant opened in my local area. With clean dress, a quiff haircut, round eyeglasses, and alone, I sat there for a rather quick afternoon ramen meal. I couldn’t tell what were the signs that explicitly stated myself as a rather specific individual, but the waitress clearly remembers me the second time I visit.

Which sort of intrigues me, because the second time I visited, my look was completely different. I was with a clean short haircut, no eyeglasses, and different dress from the last time, but the waitress still remembers me somehow. Along so many customers she needs to serve everyday, I can’t say I am so much different from the others. However, she still remembers me, why?

I even asked her about the reasons why she remembers me. She told me she has troubles remembering faces, somehow, she remembers me. Was it due to the conversation I made with her during last time? Or that something is rather different from me than others?

Thus a conclusion is drawn over this rather intriguing experience. We remember people not only by physical signs, but many more subtle things, biologically and socially.

Biologically, I believe there is pheromone played in the field, also one’s aura. If you are physically fit, you emit these biological substances with very different amount, and quality than other people do.

And it might be an effort of your nose. These things are emitted as some sort of scent into the atmosphere around the person, which paint a much different picture for this person than the majority.

For example, you can “feel”, or sense, the strength from a body builder, by not touching him or hearing him, just seeing and sensing him. And you can also tell whether an ill person is going to die in a hospital, because you can’t even feel a tiny drop of chi from the person at all.

Socially, the way you talk, you react, are signs that people would pick up, which ultimately, make an impression on others’ brains. Some people talk in a rather elegant fashion, some people talk vulgarly. These special, yet strong, characteristics paint stereotypes in our brains. Or one specific image of the specific person. Makes him or her, memorable.

All of these things are what make of individualities, the most crucial traits of one person being his/her very own self, and standing out from the rest of population.

The Famous Train Example of Relativity

The famous example of relativity by Einstein was the moving train problem.

When one man stand before a fast moving train, and two lightening strikes, he’ll see the two lightening strikes appear at the same time.

However, if the man stands on the train as the train is moving from left to right, he’ll see the the two lightening strikes appear at different time, as the right lightening strike appears first and the left lightening strike appears later.

Why is it?

I couldn’t grasp this example when I first encountered it, but when I applied some maths onto it, I cracked the relativity code.
relativity einstein
So this is you when you see the two lightening strikes, they appear to you at the same time because you view the ground and the train as the reference frame.

But when you are inside the train, especially when the train is moving between the two lightening strikes, the distance, respectively, between you and the two lightening strikes differs.


Relativity Einstein 2
As you are fast moving indefinitely towards lightening on the right, the distance b, is indefinitely shorter than the one between you and the lightening on the left, a.

Speed of light is definite, c=3×108m/s. So when b<a, and b=c×t1 and a=c×t2. So t1<t2.

If you have a hard time understanding, try imagine you are on a train, and the two lightening strikes are really really far, and speed of light travels at 100m/s, the distance between two lightening strikes is 1km, whilst you, are on a train that is 50m/s moving from left to right. Then you’ll see why the right lightening strike comes to you first than the left one.

But the example is merely a vague, or simple one to explain the general relativity. If you change the speed of light to speed of sound, that would make more sense to our human senses.

At first I couldn’t grasp this concept was also because my senses were not trusting it because it seemed to be the lightening strikes would appear the same no matter what, because light is fast, and our visual perception could not catch the subtle difference even, we were on a fast moving train.

But the connotation on relativity is simple. It’s basically reference frame–when you are on a car, whilst there is another car that is moving at the same speed as you, you won’t find that car moving at all. Suppose you set yourself as the reference frame.

We see things moving, because we have a relative reference frame that is still. Cars are moving before us, because we are still and the traffic lights are still and all the people waiting for traffic are still. If we are all moving, as the car moving, and with same speed, we won’t notice difference as the car is either leaving us or reaching us.

Hoax

Suppose your senses are lying to you, which makes all of your perceptions none other than illusions.

If I am, in a simulation machine, which all of my senses are artificially simulated, the senses are so real I can’t tell whether I am in a simulation machine.

If I am indeed in a simulation machine, how come I never wake up once to know the real world? The hypothesis is that I live inside a simulation machine, the opposition is that I never wake up to know I live inside a simulation machine.

There is no evidence to tell whatsoever that I have lived inside a simulation machine.

Is it that my brain is physically robbed off the possibility of ever waking up, like a brain in the vat? Or that there have never been any errors in this meticulously made simulation, not a single error to awake the subject?

Is reality a hoax? Or is it true to our own senses?

Beyond our senses, we can’t tell much. Only through deduction, we may find things beyond the basic 5 senses. Abstract thinking, gives us leeway to senses couldn’t grasp.

I kept asking myself the question: “If the feelings are so real, and something, something seems to be there at the back of my head. Is that a sensation that tells me I am a simulation process? But how come I never wake up?

If I am in a simulation, does that mean my true self is just 9 years old? I have been living inside a dream all along?”

That sounds promising meanwhile escapist.

Also, the hoax could be that my thoughts are inside a parallel universe, as String Theory suggests, the unrealness come from there, but some how the thoughts adapt to this body of mine in a separate universe. Counterpart paradox.

 

The Modern Science

The modern subjects of science have quite a limited time of development.

Not until just a century ago, we have made substantial chemical and physical progresses.

20th century is truly a remarkable age, where scientists and theories flourished, whilst wars and conflicts went on rampaging.

We have just made some very recent discoveries.

However, all of these theories are new, and they are constantly being disproved.

There is, no absolute law in physics. The science of physics is basically to test out each presumptive theory’s practicability. Each every time of an experiment, is to reconfirm the theory’s correctness. However, whenever a “wrong” statistic pops out, that it can disprove the theory’s correctness, this evidence is able to overthrow all previous reconfirmations. This is the philosophy of physics, and the philosophy of ALL science.

The science spirit of our time, and for generations to come, should be determined, meticulous and doubtful.

Many theories are going to be overthrown in the coming years.

We humans are already standing on a pedestal that never once has any species come forth to. We are reaching something not originally meant for us. The nano-scopic world, the distance of milky, the cells of body……

None of these things were able to be fathomed by mere human brains before this mere 200 years of technological innovations.

For students, it is important for them to learn the state of the art knowledge from this quickly exploding information age. Knowledge from 30 years ago should be completely scratched, replaced by newer knowledge. Through this way, students can overthrow their understanding of matter, of science, of world.

We seem to be playing as God. However, rudimentary.

Yes, rudimentary.

This short time of technological innovations is just the beginning of homo sapiens prosperity.

Whilst media are trying their best to introduce science to general public, they fail to educate them. Western media have done a decent job on spreading scientific information, they are ahead of Chinese. However, this is far from enough. You need to turn information spreading into information educating. Make people truly understand the meanings of scientific discoveries and innovations, what they mean for our lives and world, and the future behind.

What Is Radioactive?

Radiation, nuclear weapons or X-rays. Common terms we find in our life, however, do we know what exactly they are?

Radioactivity.

When we call a substance radioactive, it is because the substance is constantly emitting particles. In the Periodic Table, any atomic number that is bigger than 83 (including 83, bismuth) is a radioactive element.

Before get into this, let’s first understand what an atom actually does in a radioactive scenario.

An atom consists of a nucleus and electrons. Electrons are the small orbiting orbs that have negative charge, whilst a nucleus, contains neutrons and protons closely packed together. Protons on the other hand, have positive charge. The negative charge of electrons and positive charge of protons offset each other, which provides stable chemical properties, or a definite chemical form.

Neutrons have no charge and they do not affect chemical properties of an atom. Adding or removing neutrons from an atom affect the mass and the diffuse speed. However, an atom with different neutron number become isotopes, which periodically, are radioactive.

Radioactivity is the situation when the nucleus becomes unstable. If generally, an atom becoming unstable is when the atom starts to merge with other atoms, creating new elements of the previous rather stable situation. Radioactivity is inside an atom.

The neutrons, which carry no charge, have a balance with the protons, with an inherent force to pack themselves closely together.

This force is not electromagnetic, unlike the force between electrons and protons.

The protons together, due to each of them being positively charged, have repulsive force against each other. This repulsive force is so humongous that every second of it protons can push each other away in a speed of 12874 km/s.

However, in order to achieve a nucleus, which protons and neutrons strongly bind together, there must be some sort of force that keeps them so packed together.

One of the four fundamental physical forces: The Strong Force.

Strong Force relates to the components of nucleons–quarks. It is said that these quarks’ force on each other binds protons together, and also neutrons. The Strong Force is described as colors. Gluons are something that jump between each quark and leads to the force exchange between quarks, thus make quarks stable and protons, neutrons stable.

The Color Force here, tries to offset each quark’s color, the ultimate is to make them colorless. The basic colors are red, green and blue. Gluons in the process act as the color neutralizer, which also carries the energy.

It is also worth mentioning that the Weak Force (one of four fundamental forces of physics) also functions in the quark scale world. Weak Force only comes into effect when quarks are extremely close to each other. Leptons and hadrons, things that perform in Weak Force.

Protons, neutrons, made of quarks can be altered inherently by Weak Force. Weak Force determines quarks’ flavors, i.e. ups and downs. When quarks’ flavors changed, the identity of its made-up changed, i.e. a proton can be turned into a neutron and vice versa.

 

Second, when a nucleus becomes unstable, the nucleus would start to disintegrate. For example, a 80 neutrons and 60 protons nucleus would break down to small particles of, say, 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and these particles are constantly emitting away so long the nucleus becomes stable again. This process is called radiation, or radioactivity.

However, the particles emitted away do not have negative charge on them, which means there are no electrons attached on them. So when they contact new environment with new elements, they would start to merge together, attracting new electrons from other elements in the environment, and all of this, becomes radioactive. This is why we consider radiation being harmful to human bodies, because they can simply merge with your body cells’ molecules to create new elements, which can be harmful. You don’t want some heavy metal in your body right? 

The emission of particles has three types: Alpha, Beta and Gamma.

  • Alpha radiation is slow, heavy and short-distance. Nucleons, basically protons and neutrons without electrons.
  • Beta radiation is fast, light and medium-distance. Electrons.
  • Gamma radiation is very fast, wave and long-distance. Pure energy, is not affected by magnetic field.

The emission distance is usually short for radioactive substances, the point of avoiding radioactivity is avoiding the particles that are scattered around the atmosphere. The particles can enter your body by inhaling, or digesting. Or physically around you outside of your body.

Nuclear weapons can create a radius of radioactive dust. The dust consists of billions, or trillions of these radioactive atoms that are constantly decaying, which means they emit particles without electrons around them while they float around in the air or enter water and land on soil. If human bodies contact these substances, they become detrimental.

Non-Newtonian Fluids on a Particle Level

Recently I found this new concept–Non-Newtonian Fluids. Many people have tried out and played with this kind of “new” matter inside their houses or shot videos about it.

I remember that I saw some military videos about putting this kind of tech onto bullet-proof vests 4 or 5 years ago. Yeah at the time I thought it was a tech.

However, this physics phenomenon exists since the Genesis.

The phenomenon is fairly simple. If you apply a sudden force onto the surface of the Oobleck or cornstarch water, it would suddenly become a solid and you would feel the force back at you at your hand. But if you put the force slowly, and gently, you would slowly sink in it just like any liquid.

The thing with Non-Newtonian Fluids is that they don’t behave the way normal liquids do. And not all Non-Newtonian Fluids behave the same. Technically, viscosity is what matters in this case. “The rate of liquid’s flow.” Normal liquids’ viscosities are constant, whereas, NNF’s viscosities are variable.

The classic example of NNF is the simple cornstarch and water mixture, Oobleck. But there are also other suspensions out there are NNF, e.g. ketchup, blood, toothpaste, quicksand. But they don’t all behave the way Oobleck does. Not our subject here today, as we are going to find out why NNF works the way we don’t expect it to.

To understand a physical phenomenon, the best way is to scale down the scope to the “indivisible” level–particle level. This way we are going to be much easier to find out why particles perform what we’ve seen in the macro-scale.

Not molecules though, I think this question lies onto the particle level, a bit bigger than molecules.

OK, so here comes the questions. Why Oobleck would suddenly become solid when we apply quick force onto the surface? And why it would auto dissolve to the original state after the force disappeared?

I’ve tried to find out the answers on Internet, and actually, I’ve found some answers. They are rather similar, but all of them are theoretical. Two answers, precisely. And it seems like nobody has yet to crack the mysteries behind this phenomenon in current times.

Answer 1 is a broad, but practical guess. The scientist believes that: On a microscopic level, the particles of Oobleck are still solid form. They didn’t change form after they merged with water. However, water is still liquid form. So when these solid particles suspended in the water/liquid, and tons of them (The first rule of creating a Oobleck is that you have to pour twice or three times as much cornstarch into one water so that it can form a gel-like substance.) can barely move around. It’s like in an overcrowded subway carriage, there are little space between each one of particles. So they can move, but very slowly. Water is in the space of these cornstarch particles.

Here comes the tricky part. When you apply a sudden force onto the surface of Oobleck, the particles of cornstarch barely have any time to move away from the force. So that they would simply “become” a solid to respond back to your force.

And do remember, sudden force always means a big force with direction. Since acceleration is the factor of force.

While you put it in a more subtle, gentle and “kind” way, the fluid would welcome you and keep the liquid properties. The particles of cornstarch have enough time and the force is not violent and big so that they can move away from it.

Answer 2, delves into more of the particles. Identical to answer 1, it also supports that simply because particles are too dense to move.